Somewhere Between Here and There
neurosciencestuff:

New study discovers biological basis for magic mushroom ‘mind expansion’
Psychedelic drugs such as LSD and magic mushrooms can profoundly alter the way we experience the world but little is known about what physically happens in the brain. New research, published in Human Brain Mapping, has examined the brain effects of the psychedelic chemical in magic mushrooms, called psilocybin, using data from brain scans of volunteers who had been injected with the drug.
The study found that under psilocybin, activity in the more primitive brain network linked to emotional thinking became more pronounced, with several different areas in this network - such as the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex - active at the same time. This pattern of activity is similar to the pattern observed in people who are dreaming. Conversely, volunteers who had taken psilocybin had more disjointed and uncoordinated activity in the brain network that is linked to high-level thinking, including self-consciousness.
Psychedelic drugs are unique among other psychoactive chemicals in that users often describe ‘expanded consciousness,’ including enhanced associations, vivid imagination and dream-like states. To explore the biological basis for this experience, researchers analysed brain imaging data from 15 volunteers who were given psilocybin intravenously while they lay in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Volunteers were scanned under the influence of psilocybin and when they had been injected with a placebo.
“What we have done in this research is begin to identify the biological basis of the reported mind expansion associated with psychedelic drugs,” said Dr Robin Carhart-Harris from the Department of Medicine, Imperial College London.  “I was fascinated to see similarities between the pattern of brain activity in a psychedelic state and the pattern of brain activity during dream sleep, especially as both involve the primitive areas of the brain linked to emotions and memory. People often describe taking psilocybin as producing a dream-like state and our findings have, for the first time, provided a physical representation for the experience in the brain.”    
The new study examined variation in the amplitude of fluctuations in what is called the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, which tracks activity levels in the brain. This revealed that activity in important brain networks linked to high-level thinking in humans becomes unsynchronised and disorganised under psilocybin. One particular network that was especially affected plays a central role in the brain, essentially ‘holding it all together’, and is linked to our sense of self.
In comparison, activity in the different areas of a more primitive brain network became more synchronised under the drug, indicating they were working in a more co-ordinated, ‘louder’ fashion. The network involves areas of the hippocampus, associated with memory and emotion, and the anterior cingulate cortex which is related to states of arousal.
Lead author Dr Enzo Tagliazucchi from Goethe University, Germany said: “A good way to understand how the brain works is to perturb the system in a marked and novel way. Psychedelic drugs do precisely this and so are powerful tools for exploring what happens in the brain when consciousness is profoundly altered. It is the first time we have used these methods to look at brain imaging data and it has given some fascinating insight into how psychedelic drugs expand the mind. It really provides a window through which to study the doors of perception.”
Dr. Carhart-Harris added: “Learning about the mechanisms that underlie what happens under the influence of psychedelic drugs can also help to understand their possible uses. We are currently studying the effect of LSD on creative thinking and we will also be looking at the possibility that psilocybin may help alleviate symptoms of depression by allowing patients to change their rigidly pessimistic patterns of thinking. Psychedelics were used for therapeutic purposes in the 1950s and 1960s but now we are finally beginning to understand their action in the brain and how this can inform how to put them to good use.”
The data was originally collected at Imperial College London in 2012 by a research group led by Dr Carhart-Harris and Professor David Nutt from the Department of Medicine, Imperial College London. Initial results revealed a variety of changes in the brain associated with drug intake. To explore the data further Dr. Carhart-Harris recruited specialists in the mathematical modelling of brain networks, Professor Dante Chialvo and Dr Enzo Tagliazucchi to investigate how psilocybin alters brain activity to produce its unusual psychological effects.
As part of the new study, the researchers applied a measure called entropy. This was originally developed by physicists to quantify lost energy in mechanical systems, such as a steam engine, but entropy can also be used to measure the range or randomness of a system. For the first time, researchers computed the level of entropy for different networks in the brain during the psychedelic state. This revealed a remarkable increase in entropy in the more primitive network, indicating there was an increased number of patterns of activity that were possible under the influence of psilocybin. It seemed the volunteers had a much larger range of potential brain states that were available to them, which may be the biophysical counterpart of ‘mind expansion’ reported by users of psychedelic drugs.
Previous research has suggested that there may be an optimal number of dynamic networks active in the brain, neither too many nor too few. This may provide evolutionary advantages in terms of optimising the balance between the stability and flexibility of consciousness. The mind works best at a critical point when there is a balance between order and disorder and the brain maintains this optimal number of networks. However, when the number goes above this point, the mind tips into a more chaotic regime where there are more networks available than normal. Collectively, the present results suggest that psilocybin can manipulate this critical operating point.

neurosciencestuff:

New study discovers biological basis for magic mushroom ‘mind expansion’

Psychedelic drugs such as LSD and magic mushrooms can profoundly alter the way we experience the world but little is known about what physically happens in the brain. New research, published in Human Brain Mapping, has examined the brain effects of the psychedelic chemical in magic mushrooms, called psilocybin, using data from brain scans of volunteers who had been injected with the drug.

The study found that under psilocybin, activity in the more primitive brain network linked to emotional thinking became more pronounced, with several different areas in this network - such as the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex - active at the same time. This pattern of activity is similar to the pattern observed in people who are dreaming. Conversely, volunteers who had taken psilocybin had more disjointed and uncoordinated activity in the brain network that is linked to high-level thinking, including self-consciousness.

Psychedelic drugs are unique among other psychoactive chemicals in that users often describe ‘expanded consciousness,’ including enhanced associations, vivid imagination and dream-like states. To explore the biological basis for this experience, researchers analysed brain imaging data from 15 volunteers who were given psilocybin intravenously while they lay in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. Volunteers were scanned under the influence of psilocybin and when they had been injected with a placebo.

“What we have done in this research is begin to identify the biological basis of the reported mind expansion associated with psychedelic drugs,” said Dr Robin Carhart-Harris from the Department of Medicine, Imperial College London.  “I was fascinated to see similarities between the pattern of brain activity in a psychedelic state and the pattern of brain activity during dream sleep, especially as both involve the primitive areas of the brain linked to emotions and memory. People often describe taking psilocybin as producing a dream-like state and our findings have, for the first time, provided a physical representation for the experience in the brain.”    

The new study examined variation in the amplitude of fluctuations in what is called the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal, which tracks activity levels in the brain. This revealed that activity in important brain networks linked to high-level thinking in humans becomes unsynchronised and disorganised under psilocybin. One particular network that was especially affected plays a central role in the brain, essentially ‘holding it all together’, and is linked to our sense of self.

In comparison, activity in the different areas of a more primitive brain network became more synchronised under the drug, indicating they were working in a more co-ordinated, ‘louder’ fashion. The network involves areas of the hippocampus, associated with memory and emotion, and the anterior cingulate cortex which is related to states of arousal.

Lead author Dr Enzo Tagliazucchi from Goethe University, Germany said: “A good way to understand how the brain works is to perturb the system in a marked and novel way. Psychedelic drugs do precisely this and so are powerful tools for exploring what happens in the brain when consciousness is profoundly altered. It is the first time we have used these methods to look at brain imaging data and it has given some fascinating insight into how psychedelic drugs expand the mind. It really provides a window through which to study the doors of perception.”

Dr. Carhart-Harris added: “Learning about the mechanisms that underlie what happens under the influence of psychedelic drugs can also help to understand their possible uses. We are currently studying the effect of LSD on creative thinking and we will also be looking at the possibility that psilocybin may help alleviate symptoms of depression by allowing patients to change their rigidly pessimistic patterns of thinking. Psychedelics were used for therapeutic purposes in the 1950s and 1960s but now we are finally beginning to understand their action in the brain and how this can inform how to put them to good use.”

The data was originally collected at Imperial College London in 2012 by a research group led by Dr Carhart-Harris and Professor David Nutt from the Department of Medicine, Imperial College London. Initial results revealed a variety of changes in the brain associated with drug intake. To explore the data further Dr. Carhart-Harris recruited specialists in the mathematical modelling of brain networks, Professor Dante Chialvo and Dr Enzo Tagliazucchi to investigate how psilocybin alters brain activity to produce its unusual psychological effects.

As part of the new study, the researchers applied a measure called entropy. This was originally developed by physicists to quantify lost energy in mechanical systems, such as a steam engine, but entropy can also be used to measure the range or randomness of a system. For the first time, researchers computed the level of entropy for different networks in the brain during the psychedelic state. This revealed a remarkable increase in entropy in the more primitive network, indicating there was an increased number of patterns of activity that were possible under the influence of psilocybin. It seemed the volunteers had a much larger range of potential brain states that were available to them, which may be the biophysical counterpart of ‘mind expansion’ reported by users of psychedelic drugs.

Previous research has suggested that there may be an optimal number of dynamic networks active in the brain, neither too many nor too few. This may provide evolutionary advantages in terms of optimising the balance between the stability and flexibility of consciousness. The mind works best at a critical point when there is a balance between order and disorder and the brain maintains this optimal number of networks. However, when the number goes above this point, the mind tips into a more chaotic regime where there are more networks available than normal. Collectively, the present results suggest that psilocybin can manipulate this critical operating point.

shelbycragg:

pay no attention to the girl behind the curtain!!!

ck

shelbycragg:

pay no attention to the girl behind the curtain!!!

ck

brodingershat:

scientiststhesis:

dr-archeville:

8bitstickmod:

nightguardmod:

songoharotto:

fabricated-amity:

my entire math life

This is basically the problem with the entire modern educational system.

Time to do unpopular opinion? Time to do unpopular opinion.

Balancing a checkbook is applied addition and subtraction, stuff of the third grade. Okay, yeah, it is a failure of the modern educational system if he hasn’t learned it by now.

Imaginary numbers interact with real numbers (1, 2, π, 1.5, etc) for complex numbers, and are useful if you want to get into engineering or science — you know, high paying jobs.

Remember Tomb Raider? How they make her turn? Quaternions, which use THREE sets of imaginary numbers.

Like how your cell phone gets reception? That requires resonance, the understanding of which can be aided by complex numbers.

And don’t even get me started in the more exotic physics like fluid dynamics or quantum mechanics. That is, the forefront of how planes fly and how computer chips work.

There’s this term, innumeracy, that is to math what illiteracy is to english. One thing that bugs me is when ignorance is paraded about, when one acts as if math is an optional knowledge. Doubly so when it’s the very thing holding them back.

The failure is not in teaching these things, but the lack of teaching about why we should care about these things.

Thank you maths side of tumblr

The failure is not in teaching these things, but the lack of teaching about why we should care about these things.

Come to think of it, that’s applicable to how a lot of subjects are taught.

But I’m afraid maths gets the worst of it, really. I mean, how often have you heard people complaining about history? Social sciences? Even chemistry, which is more specialised than maths? No, maths gets the worst of it by far, and everyone demonises it because no one ever tells them that maths is a language, and a quite difficult one at that, because it’s the language of the Universe (of god, if you will).

Not only that, but it’s also the only language that’s truly universal (we’re certain aliens will arrive at the same maths we have) and that can truly explain everything that’s in principle conceivable. Human language can describe the stuff we see, and some extrapolations we imagine; maths can describe everything that is, was, will be, has never been, and could ever be.

Everything is maths.

This is already excellently explained and defended, so please forgive me for reblogging and adding a veritable novel to it. 

This is precisely what nobody ever even tried to make me understand as a kid, and what I try so desperately to make people understand as an adult.

When the above say that math is a language, they are being more or less literal.

The reason that mathematics is so confusing to so many people is pretty much just because it was never properly explained to them.

Math is a language heavily reliant on the symbolic representation of pre-existing concepts. As a language, it is dedicated to the pursuit of absolute grammatical consistency and the simplification of its sentence structures without any accompanying sacrifice of meaning. 

So, actually, math is infinitely easier than English.

I’ll get to why below.

Read More

little-miss-lalonde:

GIVEAWAY TIME, BECAUSE EVERYBODY LIKES FREE STUFF! 
Okay, so I just reached 3,600+ followers and that means it’s time for a giveaway! THIS WILL BE THE LARGEST GIVEAWAY THAT I HAVE EVER DONE!
WHAT YOU CAN WIN!
A CUSTOM GOD TIER OUTFIT!!! (doesn’t include the shoes)
SERIOUSLY YOU CAN HAVE ANY OF THE ONES ABOVE!!! I HONESTLY DON’T CARE WHICH ONE YOU CHOOSE BECAUSE I STILL HAVE TO MAKE ONE IN THE END ANYWAYS!!!
THE RULES
LIKE/REBLOG BY 6/12/13 (that’s my birthday!)
YOU MUST BE FOLLOWING ME!!!! I WILL BE CHECKING!!!
YOU MUST HAVE YOUR ASK BOX OPEN!!
I’LL SHIP ANYWHERE!!!
YOU MUST BE COMFORTABLE WITH GIVING ME YOUR ADDRESS
You can Like/Reblog as much as you want!
The winner will be chosen randomly!!
psssst and if you inbox me and we become friends you get some rad stuff too!
also you should like totally commission me!!! :D
OKAY THAT IS ALL, GO CRAZY!!!!

little-miss-lalonde:

GIVEAWAY TIME, BECAUSE EVERYBODY LIKES FREE STUFF! 

Okay, so I just reached 3,600+ followers and that means it’s time for a giveaway! THIS WILL BE THE LARGEST GIVEAWAY THAT I HAVE EVER DONE!

WHAT YOU CAN WIN!

  • A CUSTOM GOD TIER OUTFIT!!! (doesn’t include the shoes)
  • SERIOUSLY YOU CAN HAVE ANY OF THE ONES ABOVE!!! I HONESTLY DON’T CARE WHICH ONE YOU CHOOSE BECAUSE I STILL HAVE TO MAKE ONE IN THE END ANYWAYS!!!

THE RULES

  • LIKE/REBLOG BY 6/12/13 (that’s my birthday!)
  • YOU MUST BE FOLLOWING ME!!!! I WILL BE CHECKING!!!
  • YOU MUST HAVE YOUR ASK BOX OPEN!!
  • I’LL SHIP ANYWHERE!!!
  • YOU MUST BE COMFORTABLE WITH GIVING ME YOUR ADDRESS
  • You can Like/Reblog as much as you want!
  • The winner will be chosen randomly!!
  • psssst and if you inbox me and we become friends you get some rad stuff too!
  • also you should like totally commission me!!! :D


OKAY THAT IS ALL, GO CRAZY!!!!

sadstuck:

lickfoot:

Full-size: Start | Current

I wish my decision to draw something for 4/13 wasn’t so last-minute. Still, considering the rush with which I completed this, I’m pretty happy with how it turned out!

The idea was to draw the kids as they first appeared in the comic, and then again as they appear now. Happy 4/13, everybody!

I wonder if OP even meant for this picture to be as sadstuck as it is.

Look how everyone’s smiles have faded.

Not everyone. Rose and Jade look happier than before!

kankri-is-triggered:

My brother made a really cool map that shows the length of each HS act.
One page = 1 pixel.

kankri-is-triggered:

My brother made a really cool map that shows the length of each HS act.

One page = 1 pixel.

ishomestuckappropriateforkids:

http://www.mspaintadventures.com/?s=6&p=002999

Curse words on this page:

Fuck - 5

Context: “TG: one of you fuckers thought i was a girl” , “TG: and i want to know exactly when i got to clear some space in my calendar for when some fuckwit blunders out of a magical phone booth and makes a ballad-inspiring play for my throbbing beef truncheon” , “TG: we’re motherfuckin entrenched in this bitch” , “TG: noisy ethnic dudes are flipping the fuck out and waving us around on chairs til someone gets hurt”, and “TG: sparklin like a visit from your fairy fuckin godmother”

Sexual references - 6

Context: “TG: sorry i wouldnt cyber with you dude” , “TG: so at what point in the future am i supposed to look forward to you whipping up this titanic hankerin for my knob” , “TG: and i want to know exactly when i got to clear some space in my calendar for when some fuckwit blunders out of a magical phone booth and makes a ballad-inspiring play for my throbbing beef truncheon” , “TG: when the stars come into alignment and your flux capacitor lets you finally sate your meteoric greed for crotch-dachshund” , “TG: itd suck if the universe blew up on account of you missing your window of opportunity to help yourself to a pubescent boy’s naked spam porpoise”, and “TG: radially effevescing arms of more little boy peckers than you can imagine”

Shit - 5

Context: “TG: jesus you are such a shitty troll” , ”TG: we are in THE SHIT now” , “TG: stomp on that shit like its on fire” , “TG: shit be PURE AND TRUE”, and “TG: this shits more real than kraft mayo”

Bitch - 1

Context: “TG: we’re motherfuckin entrenched in this bitch”

Ass - 1

Context: “TG: now grab my hand and shimmy your soggy ass off that muddy bank before charlie gets the fuckin drop”

Act 2 Summary

ishomestuckappropriateforkids:

In Act 2 of Homestuck, which spans 510 pages…

The word “shit” appears 47 times.

The word “fuck” appears 33 times.

The word “damn” appears 21 times.

The word “ass” appears 20 times.

Eight sexual references are made.

The word “bitch” appears 2 times.

The word “bastard” appears once.

The word “douche” appears once.

For the visually-inclined, a few helpful charts:

image

image

image

gosh-tier:

it’s about time jesus h chrost

FIRST PLACE: literally any three shirts of your choosing (want one with a kid symbol on it? gotcha. a troll symbol? my specialty. god tier? oh shit yes. matty the sloth? this is kind of a homestuck thing but YOU BET YOUR SWEET ASS I CAN PUT LIL MATTY ON THERE) + a hand-knitted scarf (roxy, eridan, shipping colors, solid colors, anything your little heart desires) + choice of any one of the following: a pair of red or black false eyelashes, a pixel drawing of yourself/literally anything, five dollar gift certificate to whatpumpkin

SECOND PLACE: any single shirt of your choosing + choice of any one of the following: (see italicized text above)

THIRD PLACE: choice of any one of the following: (see italicized text above)

RULES:

  • you have to be following me (I KNOW THAT’S LAME AUGH but this is a giveaway for followers also i’m spending a lot of money/time/effort on this okay JUST DO ME A SINGLE SOLID)
  • i will check to see if you’re following me
  • you sneaky lil rascals
  • people already following me before this will receive a lil somethin extra c:
  • if you live outside the states, you have to pay for shipping (SORZ)
  • you have to be okay with me knowing your address i mean jesus what did you expect
  • allow at least two weeks for delivery (i make scarves to order okay it takes TIME to knit tEN FEET OF SHIT)
  • love me
  • just kidding that’s not necessary
  • but i love you
  • i will choose three winners with a random number generator on april 13, 2013 11:59pm PST

EDIT: likes do count, and you can reblog as many times as you want! just don’t be obnoxious

ishomestuckappropriateforkids:

http://www.mspaintadventures.com/?s=6&p=002422

Curse words on this page:

Ass - 1

Context: “TG: youre the one who should be wrist deep in puppet ass”

Damn - 2

Context: “TG: the problem is i am up to my goddamn neck in fucking puppet dong” , ”TG: i am enrobed in chafing, wriggling god fucking…